Heart valve repair and replacement

Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR)

A surgical procedure to either repair or replace defective heart valves. Healthy valves keep blood flowing in the correct direction.

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)

A minimally invasive procedure to replace a defective aortic valve.

Pacemaker and defibrillator implantation


A pacemaker is an artificial device that is surgically placed under the skin to regulate a patient's heartbeat. Similarly, a defibrillator is a device that is surgically placed under the skin to regulate a patient's heartbeat, and it immediately corrects life threatening arrhythmias.

Coronary artery bypass graft surgery


A surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.



This minimally invasive procedure is performed to improve blood flow to the arteries.

General thoracic surgery


Surgical procedures on the chest organs, including the heart and lungs.

Heart tests


Electrocardiogram (EKG)

The electrocardiogram is a device capable of recording the electrical activity of the heart from electrodes placed on the skin in specific locations.

Physicians use this information to discover such things as:

  • heart rate
  • arrhythmias
  • myocardial infarctions
  • atrial enlargements

Echocardiogram (ECHO)

Ultrasound is one of the most widely used diagnostic procedures available. It provides a safe, non-invasive and virtually painless means of observing soft tissue anatomy on an outpatient basis.

An echocardiogram is a safe, non-invasive ultrasound imaging procedure used to assess cardiac function. Echocardiography allows doctors to visualize the anatomy, structure, and function of the heart. The echocardiogram can show:

  • all four chambers of the heart
  • the heart valves
  • the blood vessels entering leaving the heart
  • the sack around the heart

It can lead to a quick diagnosis of heart valve problems or abnormal flow within the heart.

Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE)

A different application of an echo, this approach allows your doctor to get more detailed pictures because your esophagus is located directly behind your heart.

Tilt table test

This test is used to diagnose people with unexplained fainting spells or syncope.

Heart monitoring

Blood pressure monitoring

A blood pressure monitor consists of a blood pressure cuff connected to a monitor. Blood pressures are taken hourly for a 24 hour period. Physicians then utilize the information to determine hypertension (high blood pressure). This requires a 30 minute appointment.

Holter monitor

A Holter monitor is worn for a 24 or 48 hour period during which the electrical activity of the heart is recorded. The recording is read and the information reported is used by your physician to determine what medical treatment is needed, if any. The monitor is connected to the chest with five patches and wires. This requires a 30 minute appointment.

Event monitor

An event monitor is issued for a 30 day period. Two patches are applied to the chest and connected by wires toa small transmitter. Patches are changed daily by the patient, allowing for bathing. Over a 30 day period, the patient takes a recording when an event or episode occurs. The recording is then transferred via a landline phone to the monitor lab. Physicians utilize this information for heart rhythm abnormalities. This requires a 30 minute appointment.

Stress tests


A stress test, sometimes called a treadmill test or nuclear stress test, helps determine how well the heart handles work. As the patient walks on a treadmill or is given medication to stress the heart, an EKG machine monitors the heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, the electrical activity of the heart, and exercise tolerance. With a nuclear stress test, there are two parts to the test: a resting study and a stress study.

A nuclear stress test is used by doctors to diagnose and monitor heart disease.

  • During a nuclear stress test, a safe amount of a radioactive drug is injected into your vein which allows the cardiologist to see how well blood is flowing to and through your heart.
  • The test, usually conducted over two days, consists of taking images of your heart in two phases: a stress phase and a resting phase.

There may be restrictions as you prepare for this test. Please ask your health care provider.

Additional heart tests/scans


Cardiac catheterization

This test is used to record your heart and blood vessels as they work in order to help diagnose any narrowing or blockage.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

This uses harmless but powerful magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the blood vessels.

Computer tomography (CT) scan

This is an imaging technique that uses a computer and X-rays to reveal cross-sections or "slices" of areas of the body.